Internal combustion hammer: How to drop a woman technologically
From time immemorial, in order to hammer a pile, they placed it vertically and “dropped” a heavy load on top of it. In all languages, this cargo is called differently: a striker, a drummer, and we often have a "woman". The origin of this strange name is unclear, but, apparently, it relates to the ancient pagan stone statues, which the Slavs also called "women" and, quite possibly, used to hammer wooden piles.
A pile driver, a specialized crane suitable only for lifting and dropping a woman, served as a pile driver. Power was required small, only 2-3 hp. Therefore, initially people and horses were used to drive, and only then steam copras appeared.
It was then that they thought of a simple thought. It’s not necessary for a woman to be lifted by a crane. It is enough to bring the steam energy to it and make it jump on its own, starting from the top of the pile. In this case, the pile receives the first push when the mechanical woman makes the jump, and the second - when she falls on the pile. Steam hammer hammers were very effective, but the steam boiler itself greatly complicated the design. The hammers of internal combustion were able to solve the problem.
How to quit a woman
In principle, such a hammer is a conventional piston engine, only without a crank mechanism. Yes, it is not needed: the reciprocating movement of the piston is directly used to lift and toss the woman.
Initially, these engines operated on light fuel, as did conventional gasoline engines. But it turned out that it was more profitable to use the Diesel cycle - and low-grade fuel, including fuel oil, can be used, and its consumption is much lower. So there was a diesel hammer.
Previously, in almost every school you could see an excellent demonstration model of such a diesel hammer. It consisted of two heavy bars with barbells. The upper disc had a bore that served as a cylinder. On the bottom of the blank was a ledge, acting as a piston. The teacher lifted the upper blank, a woman, and set her to constipation. After that, he put cotton wool moistened with ether into the piston recess and, by turning the handle of the constipation, dropped the woman. When it fell, the cylinder advanced on the piston. There the air was compressed, its temperature rose, the air flared up. From this outbreak, the pressure in the cylinder increased sharply, and the woman bounced. Before the complete burnout of the ether, the model managed to make 5-10 jumps. The experience was very spectacular. Glasses rang in the classroom, after each woman's take-off, flames erupted from the cylinder and a loud sound was heard from the exhaust of the products of combustion of ether.
And how is a real diesel hammer in its simplest form? Here, everything is almost the same as on the school model, only much more complicated. Baba walks along the copra guides. The piston is equipped with o-rings and has a nozzle for spraying fuel. It is pumped under a pressure of several hundred atmospheres, as in a conventional diesel engine.
Before starting work, the diesel hammer is lifted and installed on the top of the pile. In this case, the woman is suspended on an automatically locking hook. The worker pulls the rope to power the device, the hook unhooks the woman, and she begins to fall. Here, as in the school model, it is not a piston that moves, but a cylinder. As soon as the piston is in the cylinder, air compression begins. On the side of the woman there is a special pin, which as it moves pushes the lever of the plunger pump, and a portion of fuel is injected into the cylinder through the nozzle. At this point, the temperature of the compressed air exceeds 700 ° C, and the atomized fuel flares up. The pressure in the cylinder rises, the woman jumps, and the process repeats until the pile is clogged.
The most advanced heat engine
A diesel hammer operates on a two-stroke cycle, and in one cycle the pile receives two thrusts. The first - when a woman falls on the piston, the second - after a flash of fuel in the cylinder. Shocks are transmitted to the pile through a ball joint, which compensates for the inaccuracy of the manufacture of the pile head. The mass of the shock of diesel hammers of various designs is in the range from 500 kg to 2 tons. The average frequency of the diesel hammer is 50-60 beats per minute.
Diesel hammer, despite its simplicity, the device is very perfect. Since it does not have a crank mechanism, its mechanical efficiency can reach 95–98%. And the use of very high (up to 30) degrees of compression significantly increases thermal efficiency. Therefore, the best modern diesel hammers are perhaps the most advanced heat engines and have an efficiency of more than 50%.The article was published in the journal Popular Mechanics (No. 3, March 2005). I wonder how a nuclear reactor works and can robots build a house?
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