10 ways to manipulate the human brain
10. The effect of hot / cold [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] Temperature can affect the degree of trust between people. In an experiment called the “recurring prisoner dilemma, " the participants were put in two in improvised cells, and then asked to testify against each other - in exchange for a lighter sentence. During the experiment, some prisoners were given chemical heaters, while others were asked to hold ice in their hands. As a result, the former were twice as inclined to trust their neighbor and not slander him than the latter.
9. Brain decoder [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] When we read to ourselves, we hear a voice in our heads. The same areas of the brain react to what they read, process audio information and participate in the thought process. Based on this, scientists from the University of California at Berkeley are trying to decipher the neural signals of the brain to create a medical prosthesis that would allow paralyzed people or those who are in a coma to “talk”.
8. The illusion of a marble hand [RICH_HTML type = video] [/ RICH_HTML] An unusual experiment was conducted by a group of European neuroscientists. Each participant was asked to put his hand in front of him on the table. Then a small hammer was pounded on the hand, but the sound of a hammer beating against marble was heard. After a few minutes, the subject felt that his hand was becoming hard and heavy, like a piece of marble. Thus, the brain constantly processes the information coming from different senses, updating the perception of our body. Although the body itself remains the same.
7. Pill of sympathy [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] University of California researchers have found that they can manipulate levels of empathy and honesty by altering the chemistry of the brain. Participants in the experiment were randomly given a dummy placebo or tolkapon, which enhances the action of the “hormone of happiness” dopamine and is used to treat Parkinson's disease. After that, volunteers were offered to share money with a stranger. Those who got the tolkapon were more likely to share the good equally.
6. Long-lasting isolation [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] For most people, long-term social isolation turns into serious mental disorders. Hallucinations, a distorted perception of time, increased suggestibility - this is just an incomplete list of problems faced by forced hermits. It was found that after prolonged isolation in the dark, the daily cycle stretches to 48 hours: after 36 hours of activity, 12 hours of sleep follow.
5. The McGurk Effect [RICH_HTML type = video] [/ RICH_HTML] The effect demonstrates how what we see affects what we hear. If on a video a person pronounces “ba-ba-ba” with his lips, and “ha-ha-ha” sounds on the phonogram, then the participant in the experiment hears something third, but closer to the video sequence - for example, “yes-yes-yes”. Thus, the brain tries to smooth out the discrepancy between visual and audio information.
4. Electrical stimulation of creativity [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] University of North Carolina scientists have proven that creativity can be fueled by electricity. Volunteers aged 19 to 30 years old were subjected to electrical stimulation to create the so-called alpha vibrations in the frontal lobes of the brain. These fluctuations are associated with creative thinking and arise when a person is immersed in daytime sleep or deep meditation, solves complex problems or generates ideas. As a result, the subjects' creativity grew on average by 7.4%, which is not so little when it comes to such subtle matter as inspiration.
3. Teleportation [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] Experiments on rats showed that there are cells in the brain that act like GPS navigators and determine the position of the body in space. This discovery was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The experiment - but already in public - was continued by scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. Volunteers were placed in a scanner, putting a video helmet on each head and “teleporting” it to different parts of the room. When a person saw himself and the scanner from the side, he had the feeling that he was in a different place and in a foreign body.
2. Brain recorder [RICH_HTML type = imageset] [/ RICH_HTML] A brain recorder that is under development will allow people with disabilities to write down their thoughts without pressing a key or blinking. Using a helmet with electrodes to record brain activity, eye tracking technology and free software, a paralyzed person can relay words and ideas to a computer by moving his cursor with his gaze.
1. The illusion of the invisible body [RICH_HTML type = video] [/ RICH_HTML] Another experiment at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden demonstrated how to create a sense of immateriality. At first, the participants put on a video helmet projecting an image of a mannequin on their heads. Researchers touched various subjects to the subject's body, while doing the same manipulations with the dummy. As a result, the volunteer felt that he was a mannequin. Then the experiment was repeated, but with empty space. Comparing information about what he sees and feels, the subject felt that his body became invisible. Experts hope that the results of this strange test will help in the treatment of various phobias.