10 largest disasters in the history of the Earth
Breakthrough of Lake Agassis, North America. 14500 years ago, when the last of the ice ages was approaching the end, a huge glacial lake formed on the border of the Lavrentian ice sheet. Agassis was close in size to the Black Sea, but was completely freshwater. At some point, the glacial dam, holding back the water column, collapsed, and one of the largest floods in the history of the Earth occurred. Agassis waters poured into the Arctic Ocean, weakening the circulation of warm water from the Atlantic and plunging the entire region into a new ice age for the next 1200 years. Perhaps it was because of this that many representatives of the megafauna of North America became extinct, and the Clovis culture was also destroyed.
Outpouring of Siberian Traps, Central Russia. 252 million years ago, the Earth was completely different. The continents had not yet managed to disperse, forming the supercontinent Pangea, but life at sea and on land was rapidly developing. Until in the north of Pangea, where Siberia is now located, the most powerful eruption of a supervolcano began. The volume of spilled lava amounted to more than 5 million cubic kilometers into the territory commensurate with modern USA. Mass Permian extinction began, during which 70% of terrestrial and 96% of marine vertebrate species disappeared. The frozen lava formed the Siberian traps.
Landslide Sturegga, Norwegian Sea. About 8 thousand years ago, 100 kilometers off the Norwegian coast, a piece of land the size of Iceland came off the continental shelf and slid into the depths of the Norwegian Sea. Most likely this was caused by a series of earthquakes, as well as the release of a large amount of methane due to the decomposition of gas hydrates. Traces of the tsunami that followed the landslide today are found 80 km inland of the Scottish coast.
Eruption of Lucky, Iceland. Iceland is one of the most active volcanic regions of the planet. In 1783, there was a double eruption of the Laki and Grimsvotna volcano with the release of 15 cubic kilometers of basaltic lava and a lava flow that flooded an area of 565 km. From poisonous gases killed half the livestock in Iceland, almost all birds and fish. The ensuing famine claimed about 10 thousand islanders. Ashes spread over Europe, blocking sunlight and causing new crop failure and famine.
Massive Tornadoes 2011, USA. The United States is no stranger to tornadoes, but 2011 was special. On the so-called "Tornado Alley" (the area between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains), 362 tornadoes fell on April 25-28! Four of them were rated by power as EF5, the highest category on the improved Fujita scale, which usually happens only once a year. 348 people were killed, 2, 300 injured, material damage amounted to about 11 billion dollars.
Spanish flu epidemic, the whole world. Not all natural disasters are associated with earthquakes and hurricanes. The Spaniard pandemic that erupted in the last months of World War I affected around 550 million people across the globe. About 100 million people died - 5.3% of the world's population.
Final breakthrough Agassis and the Black Sea flood, Eastern Europe. The breakthrough of Lake Agassis caused a new period of cooling, which entailed the strengthening of the ice sheet. After 1200 years, the region became warmer again, and the lake was restored to its former borders, merging with another large lake - Ojibway. However, not for long, and soon a new breakthrough occurred - this time in the Hudson's Bay. The ensuing cooling lasted only 150 years, but affected a large area. Sea level rose by almost 4 meters, and major flooding occurred throughout the world. This was especially noticeable in the Black Sea region, which was originally only a deep freshwater lake.
Zanklis Flood, Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Sea was once also a lake - about 5.6 million years ago, the African and Eurasian tectonic plates came closer and collided, cutting off a reservoir from the Atlantic Ocean. Over the next hundreds of thousands of years, the Mediterranean Lake evaporated, and the wind carried salt deposits across the surrounding lands. And yet, after 300 thousand years, Atlantic waters broke through Gibraltar and filled 90% of the former volume of the Mediterranean Sea. This took from several months to two years, and this event is known as the Zanklis flood.
Drought in Northern China, 1876-1879. Due to the consequences of the end of the Small Ice Age at the end of the 19th century, an incredible drought occurred in Northern China. For three years, not a single drop of rain fell on the earth, which caused hunger, resulting in the death of 13 million people out of 108 million of the country's population.
Clash of the Earth and Thei. This event is hypothesized, but highly probable. 100 million years after its formation, the Earth collided with another freshly formed planet - Tei, about the size of about Mars. The force of the blow merged the two planets together, and Teija's fragments formed the Moon.